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← Concepts of Recovery in Mental Health

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Provision of health care is a fundamental right of all citizens, especially in the developed economies. Most of the developed and wealthy countries provide universal access to a broad range of health care and medical services to their citizens. Various societies adopt various methods of ensuring universal access to the citizens. However, health care and medical care provision has continued to persist across demographic perspective. There have existed inequalities in the provision and access of health care across various groups in the population. This has been caused by the rising cost of health care provision, where some of the people in the society cannot be able to access quality health care due to the high cost (Loue & Sajatovic, 2011). The complexity of health care insurance provision to the people has compounded the issue of access to health and medical care in the society.

However, universal coverage of the health care system does not ensure equal access to health and medical care. This is because benefits provided by different universal health care systems vary due to varying organization structure. In addition, various nations’ universal health systems include a mix of the private and public insurance health schemes. However, lack of insurance increases the inaccessibility of health and medical care to the poor in the society. Lack of access to health insurance increases disease prevalence among the people, due to lack of access to effective health care. Most of the universal health systems involve government entities and non-governmental organizations (Laham, 1996). Universal provision of health care ensures equity in the provision of health care. Introduction of single payer system reduces administration costs, as well as ensures lower per capita expenditures on health. This means that individuals with insurance coverage are not guaranteed the access to proper health care. However, lack of health care insurance worsens the accessibility of health care to people without such insurance protection. In addition, relying on nongovernmental institutions and charity does not guarantee people the access to health and medical care. Lack of resources has led to increased delay in the provision of health care to the people. This has been caused by limited capacity created by budget constraints as well as ensuring price controls. The American system ACA has been a controversial system, where people have argued whether the system can ensure access of health to the people or not. Some argue that health care insurance coverage does not affect the accessibility and equity health care provision (Doherty, 2012).

In America, the health care system provides universal health care to the aged and most emergency cases, poor adults and children. However, majority of the funds are used for running the organization structure, such as subsidy for private insurance premiums. This has led to an increased number of the people who do not have adequate health care insurance cover in America, especially the employed ones. However, the uninsured are able to access health care from public health and private providers. However, in most cases the people delay to seek medical attention in case of disease due to the involved cost increasing the morbidity mortality rate among the American population (Loue & Sajatovic, 2011). Lack of universal health care insurance scheme for the American population has led to an increased number of people without coverage, which causes delayed provision of health care. A universal health care system reduces the barriers to the access of health care since the issue of affordability has been enhanced in the system. However, lack of the system increases the cost involved through the deductions and copayments made; also many services are not covered in the system. Copayments and deductibles involved may prevent people from seeking preventive health care, which increases the morbidity and mortality rate among the people.

The nonfinancial factors affecting non provision of universal health care include discrimination and exclusion due to factors such as racism, geographical barriers, cultural and language barriers. Different cultures have different attitudes towards disease and provision of health and medical care. For example, in America, prevalence of disease and health conditions is high as compared to whites. This has been the issue due to their perception of health insurance coverage, income and differences in education levels in the two societies. Majority of African Americans in the USA are less likely to seek preventive treatments for different, serious conditions, such as cancer and heart diseases. Provision of universal health care would reduce the prevalence of disease and health conditions to such vulnerable groups of the society. The single pay system causes significant differences in health and medical care access in terms of geographical access in terms of services and physicians availability. Most of the physicians provide their services to the wealthy suburban areas, thereby excluding the poor and people in the rural areas. A universal health care system would reduce the disparity in the provision of health care in terms geographical differences, as well as income factors. A universal system would reduce the cultural division created in the provision of health care, since all individuals would have equal access to health and medical care (Laham, 1996).

Provision of universal health care in various public health and personal medical care services would lead to reduction of health inequalities in the different societal groups. The division in the provision of health care may be caused by the racial division and socioeconomic status (Doherty, 2012). Universal access would also increase access of health and medical care to the people, since the universal system does not discriminate against any person in terms of income or race. Single pay system discriminates against people across different social divides, such as socioeconomic status cultural and ethnic divides. Therefore, adoption of a universal system of health care would lead to increased adoption of preventive health, which would lead to reduction of morbidity and mortality rate in the society. However, provision of universal health care may not be the whole solution to improved health and medical care in the community, since other factors such as education, poverty levels and lifestyle choices affect a person’s health (Zalta, 2011). There are various determinants of health, which can be health related or not health related. Health factors affecting the health and health care include lifestyle choices and preventive medication. Other factors are not  related to health; those include income, wealth, inclusiveness and exclusiveness of the health care system and social cohesiveness among other factors. Provision of universal access can solely be the solution to inequality reduction or increased access. Therefore, other determinants of health are important to understand in ensuring reduced inequalities and increased access of health provision.

Therefore, as a developed country, America should facilitate the development of a universal system of health care provision and personal medical care. This would reduce the limitations created in the access of health and health care due to various financial and nonfinancial factors. Universal health system would ensure coverage of the poor, elderly and vulnerable groups in society. Single pay system reduces insurance coverage among the people, which leads to increased inequality in the provision of health care as well as increasing inaccessibility. Universal system would facilitate reduction of inequalities and challenges of accessing health and medical care. Universal health care provision reduces the disparity of health care provision along with geographical, socioeconomic and cultural factors (Zalta, 2011). However, when addressing the issue of equality and access we should also evaluate other factors affecting people’s health.

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