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Randomized controlled trials also called randomized comparative trials refer to a specified type of scientifically based experiments. They are currently known as the gold standard of clinical trials as they are commonly used in testing of certain types of medical interventions within the hospitalized population. It has also been applied by the medical researchers to diagnose the effects of certain drugs and medication to the patients. The process involves making several trials just like tossing a coin of the various medical treatments available so as to obtain at random the best medical treatment alternative. This takes place before the interventions that are being studied are eligibly recruited for the study. The double blinded randomized controlled trial is not a scientifically based study that involves double blinded experiments.Double blinded experiments means neither the participants nor the researcher knows what belong to the experiment or even in the control group ( Jahad et al, 2007). They have been selected randomly and hence knowing each other seems difficult. The main reasons for the researcher and participants not knowing each other help to eliminate unconscious and conscious biasness with the double blinded experiment. In the experiment, one of the variable changes as the other held constant. This helps in learning about the side effects of the drugs as well as their efficiency in treatment. In recent medical studies about randomized controlled trials, it was found that the experiments are accompanied by powerful socio-psychological reactions to the participants. These effects are known as placebo effects.

It should be noted that randomized trials applied in the clinical research are known as randomized controlled clinical trials, for example they can be used to test the effects of cold vaccines. In addition to that, other areas where randomized trials have been used include research areas and in social sciences. However, their relevance and applications in these fields has been severally criticized. In this paper, we shall also look at the usage, classification, advantages and disadvantage of double blinded randomized controlled experiments (Mathews,2000).

Discussion

Double blinded randomized controlled experiments have several applications both in the medical research centers and even in social psychological sciences. It has continuously been applied in several experimental situations that involve computer based experiment. The computer controlled experiments has specifically designed software by the blinded researchers for use in the experiments. The software helps in defining the key in the third party for example in testing ABX drug, the human subject must identify the unknown stimulus X as a composition of either A or B.

Reasons for Using Double Blinded Trials With Reference To a Specific Published Psychology Experiment

The double blinded method has been severally used in the anti depressant medicines trials for decades to test the psychological effects of the drugs to the patients. In a research conducted by Food and Administration (FDA) department, 12 antidepressants agents who has been picked from 12564 patients in one of the New York hospital, double blinded method was found to give consistent and unbiased results compared to the other methods. At the end, the published results of the antidepressants patients were compared to those obtained from the experiment conducted. The results published about the antidepressant drugs revealed that in recent, the impact of drug reactions on individuals suffering from psychological problems has increase and thus there is need to change the ingredients. The statistics given revealed that in 1980s the effect was 11% only in 2009  to be 69%.Thus from the experiment we observe that double blinded random controlled trials help to reduce the biasness (Solomon et al,2009). The experiment was contacted by the study coordinators placing the selected sample of patients in a different room. They were later givens some numbers so that they can later be identified. Later, some anti depressant drugs were provided to the patients and all were coded. After the experiment, the researchers and patients met and the results were analyzed giving the above results. This reduced observed biasness popular among the data analysts. The data analysts can have some specified expectations from the experiments and in most cases they will influence the results. Some of them will select a sample from the total population that favors those outcomes they believe in. These result to wrong conclusion and hence wrong information conveyed to the medical departments.

Secondly, the method was use in testing the psychological impacts of the anti-depressants patients because the double blinded techniques are more systematic and thus the researchers are capable to monitor the results at ease. This has greatly helped the psychologists in understanding the various characteristics of patients after taking the anti depressant drugs. There is little confusion from the results as opposed to when they use single blinded techniques. The single blinded trials results to ambiguous result hence difficult to implement. Moreover, the techniques help to save time and resources because the data analysts do not have their own biased expectations in contrast to the accurate results obtained (Bouch,2005).

However, it should be noticed that, the results obtained can lead to frustrations especially where the psychologists has some pre existing expectations over the results obtained. In most cases, they will tend to manipulate the results from the psychological experiments leading to wrong conclusion.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Double Blinded Random Controlled Trials

There are several benefits of applying double blinded random techniques in the above mentioned fields.First; it has been found that the techniques help in the scientifically based evidences such as health care drug activities. They help researchers in the field to reduce bias and errors in the testing process. The researcher and even the patients do not know the outcomes of the experiment and thus no one can influence them. These have reduced conflicts among data analysts and thus promote the quality of the results produced. Secondly, the process involves systematic and procedural reviews of the evidence type of medicine experiment. This result to high quality outcome from the experiments and which is easy to understand and analyze. As a result most of the institutions such as national health and medical research council of Australia, United States preventive services task force among other institutions find the double blinded techniques essential for drug testing process. The unexpected results released from the experiments are found to bring a lot of changes in the medical field (Nezu,2008).

However, several limitations face the application process of double blinded random controlled techniques. It has been found unethical to apply double blinded experiments where the treatments are found to be very effective. Most of the studies have been suspended in such cases as it sounds ironical to continue carrying out findings of the data. Secondly, it has also been found that where the participants and the researchers can guess the outcome of the evidence based medicine and thus studies should not be carried as there are observed bias. In addition to that, it’s very difficult to apply the techniques in comparing non surgical and surgical interventions as both are totally different. However, this problem can be solved through ensuring that the double blinding process of the participants is very effective. This is because the enthusiasm and skeptics of the experimenters can be transferred to the expected results thus leading to the double blinded experiments rendered ineffective. On certain occasions and especially where we have many analysts such as in Meta analysis, the outcome of the result can lead to a conflict of interests among the analysts .This renders the research studies weak and thus the medical Meta analyzed results found ineffective or even doubtable for medication. Thus the process must be carried out without disclosure of the parties involved so as to reduce some of these limitations (Mathews,2000) .

Application of Double Blinded Randomized Controlled Trials in Psychological Experiments

Double blinded randomized controlled experiments have severally been applied in the medical field to test the drug reactions. It involves the researcher formulating specified investigational medical drug and controls such as placebo which have certain similar appearance. Patients are selected randomly and assigned to the experimental or the control groups. They are given random numbers by the study coordinators and coded drugs that match them. At this situation, neither the patient nor the study coordinator knows the outcome or the drug specification. Moreover, both patient and the researcher do not know each other so as to avoid biasness. After, the experiment, the random codes in the drugs are broken down and the results obtained matched to the patients ( Jahad et al,2007). This helps the medical practitioner to make decisions on the effects of certain drugs on the human life for instance cold vaccines. In most cases, the medical practitioners use double blinded random controlled experiments at evidence based medicine. These are popular at the randomized evidence base trials and Meta analysis of medical drugs prescriptions. In the experiment, the patients and study coordinators are expected to embrace general attitudes about the results as enthusiasm and skepticism transferred to the procedure lead to biasness.

Secondly, the process is applied in nuclear and particle physics experiments. These experiments involve a large numbers of particles and data analysts who extract complex data from certain items for testing. though all the data analysts wants to report a consistent and unbiased data ,most of them end up giving the wrong information as its difficult to eliminate the observers biasness. To removes all these bias and the experiment to be free and fair, the data analysts currently uses the double blinded random techniques in analysis so that all can agree at the final outcome. The techniques use fixed variables which in most cases help to reduce data manipulation. One of the examples for double blinded analysis is the neutrino experiment where the researchers are expected to report on N number of neutrinos. The experimenters are found to have pre existing results and expectations about the results. This means the results are already biased and if actions are not taken, they will be manipulated to give the expected results. To reduce this observed biasness, the experiment must be carried out using the double blinded techniques .Scientifically, all data analysts are allowed to work with the  energy data but their forbidden from making expectations over the results (Solomon et al,2009).

Third, it has been continually applied in the forensic sciences and especially on the cases involving crimes. A police officer shows a witness a group of police taken photo before asking him to pick out the suspect’s photo. Initially a single blinded technique was used but later it was found that the police officer can overturn the pictures to influence the witness memory. As a result, the criminal investigation departments I various states adopted the double blinded random controlled technique. Under this situation, it’s very difficult for the police officer to influence witness because neither the police nor the witness knows the suspects photo.

Lastly and not the least, double blinded random controlled experiments have been used in various international developments involving experts for example various economists  used them to measure the effectiveness of education programs and poverty in the developing countries. In the research process, neither the researcher nor the concerned state has information about each other or the variables used in order to avoid manipulation of the social science settings of the outcome. It has also been found that the double blinded techniques help economist to design models essential for measuring and reducing corruption in these states.

Conclusion

Double blinded random controlled trials have been found to assist researchers in obtaining unbiased and systematically done medical and psychological results. In the double blinded experiment both the patients and the system coordinators are assumed to be blind meaning that all of them do not know the outcome treatment. This means that nobody can dare to influence the results during or after the experiment. This approach has helped medical institutions in studying various drugs reactions to the patients. Secondly, they help in setting standards at which various drugs are approved by the food and drug administration department. Indeed, the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) must use the double blinded techniques experiments to test the drugs entering and leaving United States territories (Nezu,2008).                                       

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